E-Number Ready Reckoner

Keep this link on your phone for easy access to all the E-Numbers so you can check what is what on that ingredient list. Each E-Number is outlined, with a link through to Wikipedia for further information, plus any other important information on the additive.

We will update this table with colour coding + more detail very soon!

Colours

E100 Curcumin

Prohibited in infant food. Limit intake if suffering liver disorder or gallstones.

E101 Riboflavin

Prohibited in infant food.

E101a Riboflavin-5′-phosphate

Prohibited in infant food.

E102 Tartrazine

Known to provoke asthma attacks and urticaria (nettle rash) in children, headaches, insomnia; also linked to thyroid tumours, chromosomal damage, urticaria (hives) and hyperactivity; tartrazine sensitivity is also linked to aspirin sensitivity.

E104 Quinoline Yellow

Hyperactivity, asthma, may be toxic when combined with other additives.

E107 Yellow 7G

People who suffer Asthma may also show an allergic reaction to it; typical products are soft drinks; banned in Australia and USA.

E110 Sunset Yellow FCF

Urticaria (hives), rhinitis (runny nose), nasal congestion, allergies, hyperactivity, behavioural problems, vomiting, kidney tumors, chromosomal damage, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, distaste for food; seen increased incidence of tumours in animals; banned in Norway.

E120 Cochineal

Dermatitis, asthma, prohibited in infant food.

E122 Azorubine

Hyperactivity, behavioural problems, reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; banned in Sweden, USA, Austria and Norway.

E123 Amaranth 

Asthma, eczema and hyperactivity; it caused birth defects and foetal deaths in some animal tests, possibly also cancer; banned in the USA, Russia, Austria and Norway and other countries.

E124 Ponceau 4R 

Reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; banned in USA & Norway, prohibited in infant food.

E127 Erythrosine

Can increase thyroid hormone levels and lead to hyperthyroidism, was shown to cause thyroid cancer in rats in a study in 1990; banned in
January 1990; banned in Norway.

E128 Red 2G

Banned in Australia and many other places except UK.

E129 Allura Red AC

Considered not safe due to conflicting test results; allura red has also been connected with cancer in mice; banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria and Norway.

E131 Patent Blue V

Banned in Australia, USA and Norway.

E132 Indigotine

May cause nausea, asthma, hyperactivity, vomiting, high blood pressure, skin rashes, breathing problems and other allergic reactions. Banned in Norway.

E133 Brilliant blue FCF

Suspected neurotoxicity, hyperactivity, asthma.

E140 Chlorophylis

Prohibited in infant food.

E141 Copper complexes of chloropyll and chlorophyllins

Prohibited in infant food.

E142 Green S

Asthma, insomnia, allergies, banned inSweden, USA and Norway

E150a Caramel

Gastro-intestinal problems, prohibited in infant food.

E150b Caustic sulphite caramel

Asthma, may affect the liver, prohibited in infant food.

E150c Ammonia caramel

Asthma, may affect the liver, prohibited in infant food.

E150d Sulphite ammonia caramel

Asthma, may affect the liver, prohibited in infant food.

E151 Brilliant Black BN

Asthma, possible carcinogen, prohibited in infant food.

E153 Vegetable carbon

Possible carcinogen, mildly toxic by skin contact.

E154 Brown FK

Banned in USA

E155 Brown HT

Reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; also known to induce skin sensitivity; banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway.

E160a Carotene

May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.

E160b Annatto

Known to cause urticaria (nettle rash), prohibited in infant food.

E160c Paprika extract

May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.

E160d Lycopene 

May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.

E160e Beta-apo-8′-carotenal (C 30)

May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.

E160f Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8′-carotenic acid (C 30)

No adverse effects are known.

E161b Lutein

May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.

E161g Canthaxanthin

May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.

E162 Beetroot Red

No adverse effects are known, prohibited in infant food.

E163 Anthocyanins

Seems safe, prohibited in infant food.

E170 Calcium carbonate

Toxic at ‘high doses.’

E171 Titanium dioxide

Suspected reproductive toxicity, prohibited in infant food.

E172 Iron oxides and hydroxides

Potentially toxic, prohibited in infant food.

E173 Aluminium

Aggrevates lung and kidney disorders, prohibited in infant food.

E174 Silver

Toxic in large doses, prohibited in infant food.

E175 Gold

Toxic in large doses, prohibited in infant food.

E180 Latolrubine BK

No adverse effects are known.

E181 Tannic acid

May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.

Preservatives

E200 Sorbic acid

Behavioural problems, asthma, prohibited in infant food.

E201 Sodium sorbate

Headaches, skin irritations, digestive disorders, asthma, prohibited in infant food.

E202 Potassium sorbate

Skin irritations, digestive disorders, asthma, prohibited in infant food.

E203 Calcium sorbate

Skin irritations, digestive disorders, asthma, prohibited in infant food.

E210 Benzoic acid, also known as flowers of benzoin, phenlycarboxylic acid

Reputed to cause neurological disorders and to react with sulphur bisulphite (222), shown to provoke hyperactivity in children; obtained from Benzoin, prohibited in infant food.

E211 Sodium benzoate

Skin irritations, digestive disorders, asthma, prohibited in infant food.

E212 Potassium benzoate

People with a history of allergies may show allergic reactions.

E213 Calcium benzoate

People with a history of allergies may show allergic reactions.

E214 Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate

Banned in some countries.

E215 Sodium ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate

Banned in Australia.

E216 Propyl p-hydroxybenzoate

Possible contact allergen, prohibited in infant food.

E217 Sodium propyl p-hydroxybenzoate

Banned in some countries.

E218 Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate

Allergic reactions possible, mainly affecting the skin.

E219 Sodium methyl p-hydroxybenzoate

Asthma, eczema.

E220 Sulphur dioxide 

Can provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1.

E221 Sodium sulphite

Destroyes Vitamin B, asthma, prohibited in infant food.

E222 Sodium hydrogen sulphite

Can provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1.

E223 Sodium metabisulphite

Can provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1.

E224 Potassium metabisulphite

Can provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1.

E225 Potassium sulphite

Can provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1.

E226 Calcium sulphite

Bronchial problems, flushing, low blood pressure, tingling, and anaphylactic shock.

E227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite

Allergy, Asthma, Digestive Disorders, Reduce Vitamin Absorption.

E228 Potassium hydrogen sulphite

Can provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1.

E230 Biphenyl

Headaches, intestine upset, skin disorders, prohibited in infant food.

E231 Orthophenyl phenol

Headaches, intestine upset, skin disorders, prohibited in infant food.

E232 Sodium orthophenyl phenol

Headaches, intestine upset, skin disorders, prohibited in infant food.

E233 Thiabendazole

Headaches, intestine upset, skin disorders, prohibited in infant food.

E234 Nisin

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, prohibited in infant food.

E235 Natamycin

Can cause nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhoea and skin irritation.

E236 Formic acid

Allergy, Cancer, Kidney Problems.

E237 Sodium formate

Banned in some countries.

E238 Calcium formate

Banned in some countries.

E239 Hexamethylene tetramine

Banned in some countries.

E249 Potassium nitrite

Shortness of breath, dizziness and headaches; potential carcinogen; not permitted in foods for infant and young children

E250 Sodium nitrite

May provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions, potentially carcinogenic, restricted in many countries.

E251 Sodium nitrate

May provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions, potentially carcinogenic, restricted in many countries.

E252 Potassium nitrate

May provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions; potentially carcinogenic; restricted in many countries.

E260 Acetic acid

Respiratory problems

E261 Potassium acetate

Avoided by people with impaired kidney function.

E262 Sodium acetate

Avoid if sensitive to vinegar.

E263 Calcium acetate

Avoid if sensitive to vinegar.

E264 Ammonium acetate

Nausea and vomiting.

E270 Lactic acid

Difficult for babies to metabolise.

E280 Propionic acid

Headaches, migranes, skin disorders, liver toxicity

E281 Sodium propionate

May be linked to migraines.

E282 Calcium propionate

May be linked to migraines.

E283 Potassium propionate

May be linked to migraines.

E290 Carbon dioxide

Prohibited in infant food.

E296 Malic acid

Infants and young children should avoid.

E297 Fumaric acid

Prohibited in infant food.

Antioxidants

E300 Ascorbic acid

Check for GM status.

E301Sodium ascorbate

Check for GM status.

E302 Calcium ascorbate

Check for GM status.

E303 Potassium ascorbate

Check for GM status.

E304 Ascorbyl palmitate

No known side effects.

E306 Tocopherol-rich extract

No known side effects.

E307 alpha-tocopherol

No known side effects.

E308 gamma-tocopherol

No known side effects.

E309 delta-tocopherol

No known side effects.

E310 Propyl gallate

Not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia.

E311 Octyl gallate

Not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia.

E312 Dodecyl gallate

May cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia.

E317 Erythorbic acid

No known side effects.

E318 Sodium erythorbate

No known side effects.

E319 Tert-ButylHydroQuinone (TBHQ)

May cause nausea, vomiting, delirium.

E320 Butylated hydroxy-anisole (BHA)

Not permitted in infant foods, can provoke an allergic reaction in some people, may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerances; serious concerns over carcinogenicity and estrogenic effects.

E321 Butylated hydroxy-toluene (BHT)

Not permitted in infant foods, can provoke an allergic reaction in some people, may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerances; serious concerns over carcinogenicity and estrogenic effects.

E322 Lecithins

Can upset the stomach, kill the appetite and cause profuse sweating.

E325 Sodium lactate

Young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions.

E326 Potassium lactate

Young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions.

E327 Calcium lactate

Young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions.

E328 Ammonium lactate

Young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions.

E329 Magnesium lactate

Young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions.

E330 Citric acid

Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.

E331 Sodium citrates

Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.

E332 Potassium citrates

Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.

E333 Calcium citrates

Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.

E334 Tartaric acid

Laxative effect.

E335 Sodium tartrates

Not permitted in infant foods.

E336 Potassium tartrates

Not permitted in infant foods.

E337 Sodium potassium tartrate

Avoid if high blood pressure/liver issues. Not permitted in infant foods.

E338 Phosphoric acid

Tooth decay, calcium loss in bones, neuro toxin. Not permitted in infant foods.

E339 Sodium phosphates

High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium

E340 Potassium phosphates

High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium

E341 Calcium phosphates

Calcium defficiency. Not permitted in infant foods.

E343 Magnesium phosphates

Calcium defficiency. Not permitted in infant foods.

E350 Sodium malates

Not permitted in infant foods.

E351 Potassium malate

Not permitted in infant foods.

E352 Calcium malates

Not permitted in infant foods.

E353 Metatartaric acid

Not permitted in infant foods.

E354 Calcium tartrate

Not permitted in infant foods.

E355 Adipic acid

Allergies

E357 Potassium adipate

Not permitted in infant foods.

E363 Succinic acid

Diarrhoea. Not permitted in infant foods.

E365 Sodium fumarate

Not permitted in infant foods.

E366 Potassium fumarate

Not permitted in infant foods.

E367 Calcium fumarate

Not permitted in infant foods.

E370 1,4-Heptonolactone

No known side effects.

E375 Niacin

Doses in excess of 1,000 mg per day can cause liver damage, diabetes, gastritis, eye damage, and elevated blood levels of uric acid (which can cause gout).

E380 Tri-ammonium citrate

May interfere with liver and pancreas function

E381 Ammonium ferric citrates

Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.

E385 Calcium disodium EDTA

Kidney damage, muscle cramps. Not permitted in infant foods.

Thickeners, Stabilisers, Emulsifiers

E400 Alginic acid

Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients.

E401 Sodium alginate

Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients.

E402 Potassium alginate

Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients.

E403 Ammonium alginate

Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients.

E404 Calcium alginate

Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients.

E405 Propylene glycol alginate

Not permitted in infant foods.

E406 Agar

Flatulence, bloating.

E407 Carrageenan

Linked to toxic hazards, including ulcers and cancer; the most serious concerns relate to degraded carrageenan, which is not a permitted additive; however, native carrageenan, which is used, may become degraded in the gut

E410 Locust bean gum

May lower cholesterol levels.

E412 Guar gum

Can cause nausea, flatulence and cramps, may reduce cholesterol levels.

E413 Tragacanth

Possible contact allergy.

E414 Acacia

Possible allergen, soothes irritations of mucous membranes.

E415 Xanthan gum

Diarrhoea, bloating.

E416 Karaya gum

Possible allergen.

E417 Tara gum

Flatulence, bloating.

E420 Sorbitol

Not permitted in foods for infants and young children, can cause gastric disturbance

E421 Mannitol

Not permitted in infant foods due to its ability to cause diarrhoea and kidney dysfunction, also may cause nausea, vomiting; typical products are low calorie foods

E422 Glycerol

Has been shown to protect against DNA damage induced by tumor promoters, ultraviolet lights and radiation,
presumably via free radical scavenging; large quantities can cause headaches, thirst, nausea and high blood sugar levels.

E425 Konjac

No known side effects.

E430 Polyoxyethylene (8) stearate

People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.

E431 Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate

People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.

E432 Polysorbate 20

People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.

E433 Polysorbate 80

People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.

E434 Polysorbate 40

People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.

E435 Polyoxyethylene (20)

People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.

E436 Polyoxyethylene (20)

People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.

E440a Pectin

Large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal discomfort

E440b Amidated pectin

Large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal discomfort

E441 Gelatine

May contain 220, asthmatics and people allergic to sulphites beware!

E442 Ammonium phosphatides

No known side effects.

E450 Diphosphates

High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphate equilibrium

E451 Triphosphates

No known side effects.

E452 Polyphosphates

No known side effects.

E459 Beta-cyclodextrine

No known side effects.

E460 Cellulose

No known side effects.

E461 Methyl cellulose

Can cause flatulence, distension, intestinal obstruction

E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose

Flatulence, bloating.

E464Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose

Flatulence, bloating.

E465 Ethyl methyl cellulose

Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.

E466 Carboxy methyl cellulose

Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.

E468 Cross linked sodium carboxy methyl cellulose

National Cancer Institute of America states it “should be forbidden as a food additive”.

E469 Sodium caseinate

No known side effects.

E470a Fatty acids salts

No known side effects.

E470b Fatty acids salts

No known side effects.

E471 Mono- & di- glycerides of fatty acids

No known side effects.

E472a

No known side effects.

E472b

No known side effects.

E472c

May provoke symptions similar to MSG.

E472d

No known side effects.

E472e

No known side effects.

E472f

No known side effects.

E473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids

May cause stomach pain, nausea, bloating, diarrhoea.

E474 Sucroglycerides

Not registered for use in Australia.

E475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids

No known side effects.

E476 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate

No known side effects.

E477 Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids

No known side effects.

E478

May cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, diarrhoea, theist, dizziness and mental confusion. Avoid it.

E479b 

Likely GM soy.

E480 Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate

Eye irritations, laxative effect.

E481 Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate

No known side effects.

E482 Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate

No known side effects.

E483 Stearyl tartrate

Banned in Australia.

E491 Sorbitan monostearate

No known side effects.

E492 Sorbitan tristearate

No known side effects.

E493 Sorbitan monolaurate

Banned in Australia.

E494 Sorbitan mono-oleate

Banned in Australia.

E495 Sorbitan monopalmitate

Banned in Australia.

Acidity regulators, Anti-caking agents

E500 Sodium carbonates

Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.

E501 Potassium carbonates

Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.

E503 Ammonium carbonates

Irritant to mucous membranes.

E504 Magnesium carbonate

Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.

E507 Hydrochloric acid

Safe in small quantities.

E508 Potassium chloride

Large quantities can cause gastric ulceration.

E509 Calcium chloride

No known side effects.

E510 Ammonium chloride

Should be avoided by people with impaired liver or kidney function.

E511 Magnesium chloride

Magnesium is an essential mineral.

E513 Sulphuric acid

Not permitted in Australia

E514 Sodium sulphates

May upset the body’s water balance

E515 Potassium sulphates

Gastric erosion in large quantities.

E516 Calcium sulphate

No known side effects.

E518 Magnesium sulphate

Laxative.

E519 Copper sulphate

Essential mineral.

E520 Aluminium sulfate

Aluminium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations.

E521 Aluminium sodium sulfate

No known side effects.

E522 Aluminium potassium sulfate

Aluminium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations.

E523 Aluminium ammonium sulfate

Aluminium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations.

E524 Sodium hydroxide

Not permitted in Australia.

E525 Potassium hydroxide

Not permitted in Australia.

E526 Calcium hydroxide

No adverse effects in small quantities.

E527 Ammonium hydroxide

Not permitted in Australia.

E528 Magnesium hydroxide

Not permitted in Australia.

E529 Calcium oxide

Safe in small quantities.

E530 Magnesium oxide

Not permitted in Australia.

E535 Sodium ferrocyanide

Safe in small quantities.

E536 Potassium ferrocyanide

Reduces oxygen transport in the blood, which in turn may cause breathing difficulties, dizziness or headache.

E540 Dicalcium diphosphate

Not permitted in Australia.

E541 Sodium aluminium phosphate

Possible link to osteoporosis, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.

E542 Edible Bone phosphate

Cannot be used by vegans, vegetarians, Muslims, Jews or Hindus. The product is made of animal bones, such as from pigs and cattle.

E544 Calcium polyphosphates

Not permitted in Australia.

E545 Ammonium polyphosphates

Not permitted in Australia.

E551 Silicon dioxide

No adverse effect.

E552 Calcium silicate

No adverse effect.

E553a Magnesium silicates

Not permitted in Australia.

E553b Talc

Has been linked to stomach cancer.

E554 Sodium aluminium silicate

Known to cause placental problems in pregnancy and has been linked to Alzheimer’s Parkinson’s, bone loss.

E556 Calcium aluminium silicate

No known adverse effects.

E558 Bentonite

Known to block skin pores.

E559 Aluminium silicate (Kaolin)

Known to block skin pores.

E570 Stearic acid

Prohibited in infant foods.

E572 Magnesium stearate

Inhalation of the powder is harmful.

E575 Glucono delta-lactone

No known adverse effects.

E576 Sodium gluconate

Not permitted in Australia.

E577 Potassium gluconate

Mildly toxic by ingestion.

E578 Calcium gluconate

May cause stomach upsets and heart problems.

E579 Ferrous gluconate

Safe in small amounts

E585 Ferrous lactate

No known adverse effects.

Flavour Enhancers

E620 Glutamic acid

Might cause similar problems as MSG(621), young children should avoid it.

E621 Monosodium glutamate

Adverse effects appear in some asthmatic people, not permitted in foods for infants and young children.

E622 Monopotassium glutamate

Can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps.

E623 Calcium diglutamate

Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.

E624 Monoammonium glutamate

Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.

E625 Magnesium diglutamate

Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.

E626 Guanylic acid

Asthmatic people should avoid.

E627 Disodium guanylate

May trigger gout, not permitted in foods for infants and young children.

E629 Calcium guanylate

May trigger gout.

E631 Disodium inosinate

May trigger gout, not permitted in foods for infants and young children.

E633 Calcium inosinate

May trigger gout.

E635 Disodium 5′-ribonucleotide

May be associated with itchy skin rashes up to 30 hours after ingestion; rashes may vary from mild to dramatic.

E636 Maltol

In large quantities it can help aluminium pass into the brain to cause Alzheimer’s disease.

E637 Ethyl maltol

Some countries ban it for babies and young children.

E640 Glycine

Mildly toxic if ingested.

Glazing agents, Gases and Sweeteners

E900 Dimethyl polysiloxane

No known adverse effects.

E901 Beeswaxes

Occasionally causes allergic reactions.

E903 Carnauba wax

Occasionally causes allergic reactions.

E904 Shellac

Occasionally causes irritations of the skin

E905 Paraffins

Listed as having teratogenic properties linked to bowel cancer and can cause defects.

E907 Refined microcrystalline wax

Banned in Australia.

E913 Lanolin

Allergies.

E920 L-Cysteine hydrochloride

Is a known neurotoxin.

E921 L-Cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate

Is a known neurotoxin.

E924 Potassium bromate

Large quantities can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pain

E925 Chlorine

Possible health concerns.

E926 Chlorine dioxide

Possible health concerns

E927 Azodicarbonamide

Banned in Australia.

E928 Benzoyl peroxide

Asthmatics and people with a history of allergies should avoid.

E931 Nitrogen

No known adverse effects.

E932 Nitrous oxide

Safe in small quantities

E950 Acesulphane potassium

Possible carcinogen in humans, caused cancer in test animals.

E951 Aspartame

Too many adverse effects possible to list!

E952 Cyclamic acid

Banned in the US and UK due its links with cancer.

E954 Saccharines

It interferes with normal blood coagulation, blood sugar levels and digestive function.

E957 Thaumatin

No known adverse effects.

E965 Maltitol

Laxative in high concentrations.

E967 Xylitol

May cause bloating and flatulence.

E999 Quillaia extract

Banned in a number of countries.

Additional Additives

E1103 Invertase

Little information known at this time.

E1100 Amylase

Allergies.

E1200 Polydextrose

Seems safe in small doses

E1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone

Excess may cause damage to the lungs or kidneys, gas and faecal impaction.

E1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone

May cause damage to kidneys and stay in the system for up to a year.

E1400 Dextrin

No known adverse effects, but not fully evaluated for safety.

E1401 Modified starch

No known adverse effects.

E1402 Alkaline modified starch

No known adverse effects.

E1403 Bleached starch

Asthma.

E1404 Oxidized starch

High concentrations cause diarrhoea and kidney defects in animals.

E1410 Monostarch phosphate

No known adverse effects, further testing required.

E1412 Distarch phosphate

No known adverse effects, further testing required.

E1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate

No known adverse effects, further testing required.

E1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate

No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required. May cause diarrhoea.

E1420 Acetylated starch

No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required. May cause diarrhoea.

E1421 Acetylated starch

No known adverse effects. May cause diarrhoea.

E1422 Acetylated distarch adipate

No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required.

E1423 Distarch glycerine

No known adverse effects.

E1440 Hydroxy propyl starch

No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required.

E1441 Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerine

May cause diarrhoea.

E1442 Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate

No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required.

E1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate

No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required.

E1451 Acetylated oxidised starch

No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required.

E1505 Triethyl citrate

Reaction reported from those with low tolerence to MSG.

E1510 Ethanol

Suspected neurotoxic hazard, danger to persons with Candida and allergies.

E1517 Glycerol acetates

May cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, diarrhoea, thirst, dizziness and mental confusion.

E1518 Glyceryl triacetate

Irritations.

E1520 Propylene glycol

Suspected as a neurotoxic hazard.

10 Signs It's Not Real Food

Now - I hate click baity headlines or blog posts, but sometimes it is the only way to connect with people to share a message. Don't worry, this blog doesn't contain cat videos or "you wouldn't believe what she did next" stories!!!

When I connect with you beautiful readers, I commonly talk about real food, and what that means. I like to use the mantra, "how many steps from nature is this food?", to dictate the quality and nourishment a meal will give me. To add more detail to this, I have put together a checklist which discusses when food is not REALly food, that is, when it has become so modified or compromised that it is not the best fuel or nourishment for your body.

Here are my 10 Signs It's Not Real Food!

Disclaimer: This list is a broad brush, there are outliers for each point, but most of the time these points hold true. If in doubt, comment with the product in question and I will let you know my thoughts!

1. The ingredient list contains E-numbers.

Many modern foods are built in a lab, to combine real food ingredients with artificial additives to create foods that have long shelf lives, have big flavour or lots of colour. 90% of the E-numbers used in the food industry are known to have significant side effects (and no combination studies to identify further effects when mixed), and should be avoided.

This is the legal definition of a "food additive" from the FDA website: "any substance the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result -- directly or indirectly -- in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food."  Sooooo.....not really food at all.  The other little side note is that, "Most [emphasis mine] direct additives are identified on the ingredient label of foods."

If in doubt, refer to my list of E-Numbers, which provides details on what the E-Number is and links through for further information.

2. It needs excessive packaging.

To catch the attention of the consumer, food manufacturers use packaging to stand out on the shelves. This is for two reasons, 1) if they were to use plain packaging for the contents it would likely not look very palatable and 2) the colours and shapes of the packaging have been created to attract the eyes like bees to a flower. This is not only wasteful (War on Waste anyone?), it using marketing techniques that have been tested on humans to have them buy the product.

Next time you are in the supermarket, have a look at ALL THAT PACKAGING!

3. It has the word "flavour/flavoured" on the label.

Many processed food ingredients are inherently bland and require the addition of flavourings to enhance the taste of the product. Some food manufacturers use real flavour options for their products, whilst many resort to lower cost artificial or 'natural' flavouring to create flavour. If the food product has the word "flavour" or "flavoured" on the product, this will likely mean it contains the artificial version (check the E-Numbers). The only difference between an artificial flavour and a natural one is that the natural one initially started as that food, ie. natural strawberry flavour may have begun with a strawberry but by the time the chemists are done with it, it is usually a clear or white liquid/powder - nothing like a strawberry and not recognised as strawberry by the body. The artificial one begins and ends as chemicals. The word "flavour" often conceals hundreds of individual chemicals or 'ingredients' and is allowed on the ingredient list without further detail because it remains the proprietary IP of the manufacturer. See the list of ingredients in strawberry milkshake/ice cream flavour at the end of this post...

How much banana is in that banana-FLAVOURED yoghurt? How much maple syrup is in that maple-FLAVOURED syrup? 

4. It has impossible colours in it.

There are certain colours in real food that stand out, greens, reds, oranges, yellows and browns - in their real form they look beautiful and eye-catching on your plate. Sometimes you will encounter foods that contain "impossible" colours, as in, there is no plant on this earth that could produce that colour. Think BLUE sports drinks, or RED cordials and PINK bubble gums. These extreme colours are more than likely artificial and should be avoided. Check the E-Number for the colour and see whether it really is REAL.  An interesting experiment you can do at a children's party is set the timer when you see the red cordial go into their little bodies. Observe how long it takes to notice visible signs of behavioural change. Most red food colourings are known to cause cancer, and have been shown to lower reproductive success in rats. Please do more research if you or your children are still consuming colourings.

The beauty of this is that there are many gorgeous, wholefood colours that can be used to enhance food, I will cover that off soon for another blog!

5. It is preserved with sugar or salt.

Many foods that sit on the shelves require a bit of support to not "go off", there are a handful ways to do this, one being the addition of artificial preservatives. As people shy away from these ingredients, food manufacturers are utilising two ingredients in particular to help improve shelf life. They are sugar and salt. Both of these, when used in significant quantities, help preserve food (prior to refrigeration, salt was used to preserve meats and cheeses, and sugar was used to help preserve fruits and some vegetables).

Salts and sugars are a maze when it comes to good/bad/evil options - but it is worth considering these when reading the ingredient label, is that sugar or salt there for preserving this food and adding flavour? What percentage does it take up on the ingredient list? And how many different sugar names appear on the list, which if all were to have been listed as "sugar", might appear instead as the first ingredient?

6. It has a shelf life that puts a Mummy to shame.

Food manufacturers HATE waste and returns from retailers when it spoils. To manage this problem, the answer for them was to identify how to improve the shelf life of their products to provide a win/win situation for the manufacturer and retailer. Long shelf life products mean manufacturers know that their product won't go bad for their retailer and the retailer knows they have time to sell the product. Aisles I have perused in supermarkets contain products with shelf lives that put Egyptians Mummies to shame. Some products have a BEST BEFORE date that exceeds 12 months, and I have in my "baddie" stash at home, foods that are two years past their BEST BEFORE date, and look brand new. These products are so full of preservatives that NOTHING will eat them, not even mold, mites or weevils!!!

I'll let you decide whether it is a good idea to put these foods in your belly.

7.  It has a "name" that is trademarked.

Many products resort to branding their product with a trademarked name. Immediately this rings alarm bells, if these products were marketed under the name of what they were, you might be less inclined to buy them. Would you like to buy some "Yeast extract with artificial flavouring, artificial colour AND fortified with artificial vitamins" or "Puffed rice with added yoghurt flavour, glucose, fructose, hydrogenated oils, salt and artificial flavours"?

I'll let you guess what the brands are, but I'll give you a clue that they are both in the grand majority of pantries I see. I am pretty certain these brand names are hiding the truth within their ingredient list!!!

8. It claims to contain a great ingredient, yet the ingredient is present only in tiny amounts.

Oh boy. This is a biggie. So many products love to highlight an ingredient that attracts a customer. With "super foods" being the marketing go-to for many food manufacturers, the addition and then highlighting of ingredients to improve the image of the product is rampant. Like the cashew spread that only contains 25% cashews, or the chia seed bread that contains 8% chia seeds. Fortunately, when a manufacturer markets a certain ingredient, they are also required to list the total percentage of said ingredient in their ingredient list, but it is up to you to actually check their work. 

When you see that claim "contains x", flip it over to see how much is really in there, and then see what the main ingredient REALLY is.

9. It needs a billboard or a television advertisement.

Now, there are some foods that you see on billboards and on television ads that are real food, so my apologies to the food manufacturers who are doing the right thing and use their marketing budget to spread the word via this form of advertising. BUT. If a food requires the spend of many thousands of dollars to tell you about it, there are two potential issues.

One, if the business can afford to spend large sums of money to have you buy their product, chances are the food is full of cheap calories and poor quality ingredients. If you removed the marketing cost for that product, how much would it really cost the consumer? Imagine if the marketing cost was replaced with sourcing better quality, real food ingredients with better nutritional returns for the consumer? The more you see that product/brand 'everywhere', the more of their budget ISN'T going into the quality of the food.

Two, if you weren't told about it via an advertisement, would you seek it out? I know many real food brands that sell their product (and do VERY well) without expensive marketing strategies, their product sells itself! It is worth considering this when you next go shopping, how much of a pull do you have for the gaudy shelf marketing and the abrasive television ads? Crazy isn't it?

10. The ingredient list (contains brackets).

Ingredient lists on manufactured foods are required to be in order of quantity (largest to smallest) to help the consumer understand the breakdown of ingredients. There are now laws or regulations as to how this implemented, and many food manufacturers use a sneaky strategy to hide the truth on their ingredient lists. This is done using (brackets), where they create a "component" and group the ingredients in that component together in brackets to boost that component up the list. A great example is a rice-based snack aimed at children:

Rice component (30%) (whole white rice, sugar, salt, barley malt extract), yoghurt flavoured compound (27%) (sugar, vegetable oil, milk solids, glucose, yoghurt powder, emulsifier [soy lecithin], food acid [330], salt), glucose, fructose powder, hydrogenated soyabean oil (antioxidants [304, 307b]), sugar, glucose solids, invert sugar, humectant (glycerol), gelatin, natural flavour, salt, emulsifiers (472e, 472a), skim milk powder.

If the ingredient list was broken down with a true representation of the contents of the snack, it wouldn't look like this. I've counted 10 different listings of various sugars (in italics) so surely sugar should be listed as the first ingredient no?!

(for demonstration purposes only....)
Sugar, Sugar, Sugar, Sugar, Sugar, Sugar, Sugar, Sugar, Sugar, Sugar, whole white rice, salt, vegetable oil, milk solids, hydrogenated soyabean oil (antioxidants [304, 307b]), yoghurt powder, emulsifier [soy lecithin], food acid [330], gelatin, natural flavour, emulsifiers (472e, 472a), skim milk powder.

Not so appealing now is it? 

THE GOOD NEWS: Eating real food is not hard and your body will reward and thank you wonderfully as soon as you allow yourself to peel away the non-foods and Just Eat Real Food (JERF!). 

PS.

This is what is in artificial strawberry flavouring, such as the stuff in your fast food chain milkshake...

  • amyl acetate,
  • amyl butyrate,
  • amyl valerate,
  • anethol,
  • anisyl formate,
  • benzyl acetate,
  • benzyl isobutyrate,
  • butyric acid,
  • cinnamyl isobutyrate,
  • cinnamyl valerate,
  • cognac essential oil,
  • diacetyl,
  • dipropyl ketone,
  • ethyl acetate,
  • ethyl amyl ketone,
  • ethyl butyrate,
  • ethyl cinnamate,
  • ethyl heptanoate,
  • ethyl heptylate,
  • ethyl lactate,
  • ethyl methylphenylglycidate,
  • ethyl nitrate,
  • ethyl propionate,
  • ethyl valerate,
  • heliotropin,
  • hydroxyphenyl-2-butanone (10 percent solution in alcohol),
  • a-ionone,
  • isobutyl anthranilate,
  • isobutyl butyrate,
  • lemon essential oil,
  • maltol,
  • 4-methylacetophenone,
  • methyl anthranilate,
  • methyl benzoate,
  • methyl cinnamate,
  • methyl heptine carbonate,
  • methyl naphthyl ketone,
  • methyl salicylate,
  • mint essential oil,
  • neroli essential oil,
  • nerolin,
  • neryl isobutyrate,
  • orris butter,
  • phenethyl alcohol,
  • rose,
  • rum ether,
  • g-undecalactone,
  • vanillin, and
  • solvent.